A fresco, an Atlas and a Chart. These are the three pillars of the new Tirana General Local Plan, that it has been approved in May last year 2017 and now in force. The «vision» for the future of Tirana from now until 2030 (TR030) could in large part be defined as a plan for the recovery of the landscape and above all the definition of a polycentric /Kaleidoscopic metropolis.
The new Tirana General Local Plan (TGLP) is part of an historical Albanian territorial reform started in 2014 and part of the new national administrative territorial reorganisation. Following the territorial reform where administrative boundaries of the Municipality of Tirana underwent radical changes, with expansion of its administrative borders by about 25 times, the consortium developed a General Local Plan which defines the legal framework for the strategic and spatial development prospective for the future of Tirana. The vision developed has been projected in the next 15 years (Tirana 2030) providing 138 pilot projects and setting up a list of priority interventions in the short, medium and long term. The vision is based upon the definition of a polycentric metropolis (connecting the small villages around Tirana urban area), establishing a green belt (the so called orbital forest) in order to contain the sprawl and preserving the natural resources heavily affected by the urban expansions during the last two decades. Through the development process of this plan, the team identified a number of «Transformation Areas” with added uses that address the city’s urgent need for decentralization of its structural form. Following the fall of the communist system, the city experienced a rapid urban transformation and growth where the population doubled in less than a decade. This process heavily affected the public facilities and public spaces in general of the city, where prior social cohesion and recreational activities were possible. This is a kind of «kaleidoscopic city» that, however can now rely on a new instrument which may permit more coordinated and comprehensive management. TR030 is made up of three containers: a metropolitan Fresco based on ten major themes (biodiversity, polycentrism, diffuse knowledge, mobility, water; geopolitics, tourism, accessibility, agriculture and energy); an Atlas composed of thirteen strategic projects located in the real landscape and a Chart of rules formulated around five metabolic systems (nature, infrastructure, city, agriculture, water). The main strategy is based on preserving natural resources as much as possible limiting the sprawl and at the same time redefining the discontinuity in the urban fabric and the fragmentation of the built-up (urban) area, with the possibility of building a little higher in order to free up more land. Tirana is a city in which the average height of the buildings is not particularly high, but it is also one of the densest in Europe. Thus, the strategy relies on the creation of gaps to generate public space, as well as on nature to absorb the diversity and complexity within the new city limits. The relationship with nature is a theme that envisages various strategies: a continuous ring of woodland around the metropolis, including parks and protected nature reserves that will preserve and boost the existing biodiversity; new environmental corridors along the Lane, Tirane and Erzen rivers; a green belt (the new 4th ring-road) around the centre of the Greater Tirana, serving as a linear public space and link for the transport system. A further aspect will be the revival of minor towns as a distributed network of centres for tourism, agriculture and production that will be in communication with one another and with the urban area. This last point is an integral part of another major theme of considerable significance for decongesting the city as well as the mobility and accessibility (in a city that has grown without rules and where sometimes even pavements are lacking) – is Tirana as a polycentric city. The polycentrism is also being developed in different ways: on a larger scale, with the planning of five new areas for production outside the city to serve as centres for culture, public services and leisure. Tirana is a geopolitical palimpsest of the 20th. century, whose historical epicentre is the central axis of the city: a monumental avenue, designed by Armando Brasini’s town plan in 1925. The new general Local Plan rethink the relation between density and urban intensity opening a new perspective for urban regeneration projects. TR2030 is a project for the definition of a new kaleidoscopic metropolis focusing on the urban regeneration instead of promoting the physical expansion of the city preserving the natural environment and making it an integral part of the city itself. Besides that the new General Local Plan provided a system of principles for turning the quantity into quality through an number of rules connected to a number of values. It prevents the sprawl and on the same time reinvest into the built area distributing missing infrastructures and new polarities combined with a redefinition of the mobility system.
1 st place
Andreas Faoro, Stefano Boeri UNLAB UrbaN Landscape Architecture Bureau
IMPLEMENTED BUILT, PROFESSIONAL COMPETITION, Season 2018, URBAN PLANNING, Победители